Lactobacillus rhamnosus is one of the most widely studied probiotics. It is a member of the phylum of Firmicutes. It was first isolated from the gut of a healthy patient in 1983 and then patented by two doctors with the initials GG, hence this strain is sometimes called L. rhamnosus GG or LGG (1). It is now the most widely studied probiotic bacteria with over 800 studies. Among some of the findings are that it sticks to the mucous membrane of the intestine and may help to restore the balance of the gut bacteria; diminish the production of toxic compounds by other intestinal bacteria; and enhances the immune response, especially during infections.
The clinical health effects of L. rhamnosus GG are numerous. It is used in treating female-related infections and helpful to help treat bacterial overgrowth during an active infection (2). Research suggest that it can help: allergic reactions to peanuts in children (3), prevention of and treatment of various types of diarrhea in children and in adults (4-7), reduce the risk of obtaining respiratory tract infections in children that attend daycare (8,9), reduce anxiety, and change regulation of the various neurotransmitter receptors (10).
GG associated with severe bacterial infections particularly in individuals with a weakened immune system and ulcerative colitis (11).
- Silva M, Jacobus NV, Deneke C, Gorbach SL (1987). “Antimicrbial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain”. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31 (8): 1231–3. doi:10.1128/aac.31.8.1231. PMC . PMID 3307619
- Oxford Journal: Selection of Lactobacillus Strains for Urogenital Probiotic Applications|http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/183/Supplement_1/S77.full.pdf
- Scott, Sophie. “Peanut allergies: Australian study into probiotics offers hope for possible cure”. abc.net.au. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Canaani, RB; Cirillo P; Terrin G; Cesarano L; Spagnuolo MI; De Vincenzo A; Albano F; Passariello A; De Marco G; Manguso F; Guarino A (2007). “Probiotics for treatment of accute diarrhoea in children: randomised clinical trial of five different preparations”. BMJ. 335 (7615): 340. doi:10.1136/bmj.39272.581736.55. PMC . PMID 17690340.
- Österlund, P; Ruotsalainen T; Korpela R; Saxelin M; Ollus A; Valta P; Kouri M; Elomaa I; Joensuu H (2007). “Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study”. Br. J. Cancer. 97 (8): 1028–34. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603990. PMC . PMID 17895895.
- Guandalini, S; Pensabene L; Zikri MA; Dias JA; Casali LG; Hoekstra H; Kolacek S; Massar K; Micetic-Turk D; Papadopoulou A; de Sousa JS; Sandhu B; Szajewska H; Weizman Z (2000). “Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial”. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 30 (1): 54–60. doi:10.1097/00005176-200001000-00018. PMID 10630440.
- Vanderhoof,Jon A.; et al. (1999). “LactobacillusGG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children”. The Journal of Pediatrics. 135 (5): 564–568. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(99)70053-3. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- Hojsak, I; Snovak N; Abdović S; Szajewska H; Mišak Z; Kolaček S (2009). “Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial”. Clin. Nutr. 29 (3): 312–6. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2009.09.008. PMID 19896252.
- Hatakka, K; Savilahti E; Pönkä A; Meurman JH; Poussa T; Näse L; Saxelin M; Korpela R (2001). “Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial”. BMJ. 322 (7238): 1327. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7298.1327. PMC . PMID 11387176.
- J. A. Bravo et al. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Published online August 29, 2011. Doi: 10.1073/pnas.1102999108
Vahabnezhad E, Mochon AB, Wozniak LJ, Ziring DA.,Lactobacillus bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a pediatric patient with ulcerative colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013 May-Jun;47(5):437-9. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e318279abf0.